# Conduct Shapiro-Wilk normality tests on the WPM response for each Alphabet

## Doing Oneway ANOVAS

Qn1. Download the file alphabets.csv from the course materials. This file describes a study in which people used a pen-based stroke alphabets to enter a set of textphases. How many different stroke alphabets are being compared?

Qn2. To the nearest hundredth (two digits), what was the average text entry speed in words per minute (WPM) of the EdgeWrite alphabet?

Qn3. Conduct Shapiro-Wilk normality tests on the WPM response for each Alphabet. Which of the following, if any, violate the normality test? (Mark all that apply.)

```
-Unistrokes
-Graffiti
-EdgeWrite
-None of the above
```

Qn4. Conduct a Shapiro-Wilk normality test on the residuals of a WPM by Alphabet model. To the nearest ten-thousandth (four digits), what is the p-value from such a test? Hint: Fit a model with aov and then run Shapiro.test on the model residuals.

Qn5. Conduct a Brown-Forsythe homoscedasticity test on WPM by Alphabet. To the nearest then-thousandth (four digits), what is the p-value from such a test? Hint: Use the car library and its level Test function with center=median

Qn6. Conduct a oneway ANOVA on WPM by Alphabet. To the neares hundredth (two digits), what is the F statistic from such a test?

Qn7. Perform simultaneous pairwise comparisons among levels of Alphabet sing the Tukey approach. Adjust for multiple comparisons using Holm’s sequential Bonferroni procedure. To the nearest ten-thousandth (four digits), what is the corrected p-value for the comparison of Unistrokes to graffiti? Hint: use the multcomp library and its mcp function called form within its glht function.

Qn8. According to the results of the simultaneous pairwise comparisons, which of the following levels of Alphabet are significantly different in terms of WPM? Mark all that apply.)

```
-Unistrokes vs. graffiti
- Unistrokes vs, EdgeWrite
- Graffiti vs. EdgeWrite
- None of the above
```

Qn9. Conduct a Kruskal-Wallis test on WPM by Alphabet. To the nearest ten-thousandth (four digits), what is the p-value from such a test? Hint: use the coin library and its Kruskal-test function with distribution = “asymptotic”

Qn10. Conduct nonparametric post hoc pairwise comparisons of WPM among all levels of Alphabet manually using separate Mann-Whitnet U tests. Adjust the p-values using Holm’s sequential Bonferroni procedure, To the nearest ten-thousandth (four digits), what is the corrected p-value for Unistrokes vs. graffiti? Hint: The coin library’s Wilcoc_test only takes a model formular specification. For this, you need wilcox.test with paired = FALSE ((and to avoid warnings= FALSE))